1996). The bark is grey and smooth with shallow ridges which develop with age, and its twigs are smooth, straight and slim. At Dogwood we believe that everything is connected. Regeneration can be eliminated in some areas. Agrilus planipennis. Dogwood anthracnose and its spread in the South. The decline of dogwood populations resulting from dogwood anthracnose has several serious impacts in the Southern Appalachians. nov., cause of dogwood anthracnose. Leaf symptoms on C. florida generally occur within four weeks after flowering (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). Chellemi, D.O., K.O. Caetano-Anolles, G., R.N. Invasive Listing Sources: Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England , Invasive Plant Control, Inc. , USDA Forest Service , There is only one genus of dogwood in Canada — Cornus — but its species come in a variety of shapes and sizes. This varied group of plants give great garden value. 1992, Hoffard et al. Environmental factors influence dogwood’s susceptibility to the disease. Southern Region. Bugwood Wiki. 2001. Cornus florida, the flowering dogwood, is a species of flowering tree in the family Cornaceae native to eastern North America and northern Mexico.An endemic population once spanned from southernmost coastal Maine south to northern Florida and west to the Mississippi River. Plant Disease. Amylostereum complex ... Dogwood Anthracnose Disease. Dogwood leaves also have a high calcium content and decompose rapidly. Salogga, D.S., and J.F. Distinctive white flowers, 3″ in diameter, bloom mid-April to mid-May. USDA. U.S. Forest Service Protection Report R8-PR 23. Pirone, P.P. Stem dieback from dogwood anthracnose (, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), Climate Change Impacts on Forest Diseases. Control and eradication, a primary management goal, is an ongoing challenge. 365 (Abstr.). National Invasive Species Information Center, Alien Forest Pest Explorer (AFPE): Alien Pest Range Maps, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Dogwood Anthracnose, Gallery of Pests - Dogwood Anthracnose Disease, Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Dogwood Anthracnose, Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Anthracnose of Dogwood (, Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South (PDF | 483 KB), How to Identify and Control Dogwood Anthracnose, Forest Invasive Alien Species - Dogwood Anthracnose, Dogwood Anthracnose - Integrated Pest Management Solutions for the Landscaping Professional (PDF | 100 KB), Fact Sheet: Dogwood Anthracnose (PDF | 245 KB), Ground Covers, Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Ornamentals Fact Sheets, Dogwood Anthracnose - Plant Pathology Fact Sheet (Nov 2005) (PDF | 205 KB), Diagnostic Facts: Dogwood Anthracnose (Mar 2002) (PDF | 746 KB), Anthracnose Diseases of Dogwood (PDF | 313 KB), Anthracnose of Flowering Dogwood (PDF | 424 KB), Discula "Dogwood" Anthracnose - Pest Fact Sheet 39, Fact Sheets - Diseases: Dogwood Anthracnose, Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook - Dogwood (, Patterns of evolution in Discula fungi and the origin of dogwood anthracnose in North America, studied using arbitrarily amplified and ribosomal DNA, Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. Discula destructiva is a fungus that has caused serious losses to North American native flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and other native and introduced species (C. nuttallii and C. kousa, respectively) of dogwood found in the natural environment and in ornamental plantings. Ophiostoma ulmi. Britton, M.T. – roughleaf dogwood Subordinate Taxa. Britton, M.T. Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. 1993. 16 of 20. Leaf buds are black and look like bristles, forming on short stalks. 1994, SAMAB 1996). Fall color is purplish to red. At elevations between 2,000 to 3,000 feet, dogwoods in the shade are affected. Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County. University of New Hampshire. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Regional Dogwood Workshop. 1996. References Cited Discula sp. Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood) Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) is a small, low-branched tree with spreading horizontal branches. An organization’s internal relationships and balance affect how the organization relates to its clients and the external environment. Figures 5-6. Britton, K.O. In early autumn, it … 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1983). For this reason, ornamentals grown in open, sunny sites are often disfigured without being killed. Daughtrey. Anderson, R.L., J.L. Beyond this aesthetic loss, the absence of native dogwoods and their fruits is probably detrimental to wildlife. The species reproduces vegetatively by rooting along nodes and the lower stems ( EPPO, 2009b ). Their loss could hasten soil acidification, reduce nutrient availability, and influence numerous ecological relationships (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). 76:915-918. The .gov means it’s official. Forest Service Protection Report 26, p. 19. Table 1 identifies a selection of alternative plants, trees and shrubs (categories A to M) that can be used in place of invasive species. The New York Times. Ammirati. Lower branch dieback, a new disease of northern dogwoods. Phytopathology. February 24: 34-37. Disease severity within infected areas also has increased rapidly. 1993. In native habitats such as sedge meadows and fens in North America, C. sericea colonizes far from clones of shrub by seed, but also advances via spreading (B Middleton, National Wetlands Research Center, Louisiana, USA, … Although the origin of dogwood anthracnose is unknown, the results of DNA analysis combined with its rapid spread have led many to conclude it was introduced (Daughtrey et al. Visually appealing and magnets for wildlife, these plants are bound to please both the gardener and naturalist in you. Natural Resources Canada. University of Georgia. 1995). 72:199-203. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. and R.M. In: Stipes, R.J. 1996). ... Bill was responsible for our invasive species strategy and deployment while I was at The Nature Conservancy. Hibben. Plant Disease. Discula destructiva. Discula destructiva sp. This specimen is also hearty, in that it perseveres transplantation and responds rather well to pruning. In: J. L. Knighten and R. L. Anderson (eds.). 1996. ... 12 Species of Dogwood Trees and Shrubs 7 Species of Daisies for Your Flower Garden 18 Species of Holly Plants Daughtrey, M.L. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Dogwood Anthracnose. Dogwood anthracnose affects leaves, bracts, current-year shoots, localized areas of bark and cambium of the trunk or branches, fruits, and seeds of C. florida (Britton et al. USDA Forest Service. Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants : Threatened & Endangered: Wetland Indicator Status : 50,000+ Plant Images ... Cornus L. – dogwood Species: Cornus drummondii C.A. Mycologia 83(5):633-642. Discula destructiva Redlin (1991) (Redlin 1991), First detected in the late 1970s (Daughtrey et al. that cause anthracnose of ash, oak, and sycamore, Redlin (1991) described and named the pathogen Discula destructiva Redlin in 1991 (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994, Daughtrey et al. Table 2 identifies those invasive species commonly used in gardens or landscaping, the corresponding alternative plant category, as well as some additional alternatives. Cooperative Extension Service. Hibben, K.O. Images of dogwood anthracnose symptoms. It is listed as a black listed invasive species in Switzerland (EPPO, 2009b). Dutch Elm Disease. University of Kentucky. 1994. Of the 17 species of dogwood native to North America, the four most common garden types are native flowering dogwoods, Pacific dogwood, Cornelian cherry dogwood and kousa dogwoods. Species include the common dogwood Cornus sanguinea of Eurasia, the widely cultivated flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) of eastern North America, the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii of western … Images of dogwood anthracnose infections. 1980. 1994). Dogwood trees are dependent on surface moisture because root networks don't penetrate to water reserves that may lie deeper beneath the slightly acidic well-draining soil they prefer. FS. Montgomery, and K. Langdon. Swank. Buddleia davidii is not the only shrub that has turned out to be invasive. Mey. Windham. Through educational outreach, strategic planning and active management we are … Disease severity in the South seems to be more intense at higher elevations. Erythrina Gall Wasp. The crimson colour of its leaves in autumn, and its strikingly red twigs, make it a popular ornamental plant, so it is frequently planted in parks and gardens. Researchers also speculate that climatic changes and droughts may have predisposed trees to infection, thus causing coincidental outbreaks in the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest (Anderson et al. Dogwood anthracnose: A new disease threatens two native Cornus species. 1996). Hibben, K.O. It is native to Eastern North America and is hardy in USDA zones 4 to 8. 1995. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Trigiano, and M.T. Hibben. 1290. Mature trees can grow to 10m. 1992. Apply the mulch of your choice such as bark chips 3 to 4 inches deep over roots to hold in moisture. The DNR is working with citizens and partners to slow the spread of invasive species. Anthracnose was monitored on permanent plots in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) from 1988-1991 (Windham et al. Adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez, University of Arizona. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Parasitic fungus affects region’s dogwood. Dogwood - A Plant for all Seasons No matter where you live in Canada, chances are there is a dogwood for you. 1994. C. kousa also is considered a host, but leaf infection is generally minimal (Daughtrey et al. Dogwood is a small shrub, widespread along the woodland edges and hedgerows of southern England. Found 59 Resources Page 1 of 1. By 1995, the disease had been confirmed in northern Georgia (1987), western North Carolina (1988), and as far south as northern Alabama. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter. Current Genetics 39(5-6):346-354. Annual Review of Photopathology. 77:34-36. The dogwoods are distinguished from other flowering shrubs by the clusters of small, 4-petaled white flowers and opposite (except for 1 species) leaves that are toothless and have prominent, arching, lateral veins. This species is known as Cornus racemose. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Latin Name Common Name . Phytophthora alni. Britton, and W.T. Cooperative Extension. Patterns of evolution in Discula fungi and the origin of dogwood anthracnose in North America, studied using arbitrarily amplified and ribosomal DNA. University of Massachusetts Extension. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 77: 34-37. Emerald Ash Borer. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. Overall, vigorous trees tend to be less damaged than weak trees. In the eastern United States, the disease has spread rapidly down the Appalachians, primarily on Cornus florida, the eastern flowering dogwood. These were also the species on which the responsible agent for the disease was discovered in 2003 in a nursery in Lombardy, Italy, and in a private garden in Germany. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood ( Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood ( Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. Dogwood anthracnose has been reported on over 12 million acres in 180 counties (Anderson et al. 1996), Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. Trees that survive one or more seasons of severe anthracnose usually have swollen areas on trunks and branches where cankers were enveloped by new tissue (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Lantana . Center for Integrated Plant Systems. Discula destructiva sp. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Mycologia. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Cooperative Extension Service. This plant has no children Legal Status. 2 and 3), (2) shot holes, (3) necrotic blotches at the leaf tip or along the blade periphery, or (4) blight of the entire blade (Hibben and Daughtrey 1988) (Fig. A species profile for Dogwood Anthracnose. Leaves are dark green with bright yellow flowers. Invasive plants, animals and pests are taking a toll on Wisconsin's lakes, rivers and landscapes. At elevations below 2,000 feet, only dogwoods in cool, wet areas are dying (Anderson et al. Daughtrey, J.L., C.R. Alder Dieback. Parham, J.M. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Britton et al. 2001. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Below 3,000 feet, damage is most severe on moist, cool sites such as northeast-facing slopes (Chellemi et al. 1994). Amylostereum complex. National strategy for special forest products. Results of the 1991 dogwood anthracnose impact assessment and pilot test in the southeastern United States. Secondary cycles of leaf infection during rainy periods increase the impact of anthracnose on dogwoods (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). dikti / Getty Images Latin Name: Various species of Lantana can be invasive. 1996). Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. Redlin, S.C. 1991. Nov., Cause of Dogwood Anthracnose. Clusters of glossy red fruit in fall persist into winter and are relished by birds. Oregon State University. Bugwood Wiki was created to be a resource for those needing information on Integrated Pest Management, Invasive Species and … Finding the disease distinct from other Discula spp. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. associated with anthracnose of dogwood in the Pacific Northwest. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. Daughtrey, M.L., and C.R. and M.T. Plant Disease. It produces an abundant display of yellowish-green flowers in spring and pinkish-red berries in summer. Brown. It grows to about 20 feet high with an 18-foot spread. 4). Anthracnose causes serious damage to two species of dogwood in natural habitats: eastern flowering dogwood (C. florida) and Pacific dogwood (C. nuttallii). Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Invasive Plant Control, Inc., USDA Forest Service, Also known as Chinese dogwood, Korean dogwood, or Japanese dogwood, the Kousa dogwood is a small deciduous tree or multi-stemmed shrub. Leaf spots vary according to light exposure. In the Southern Appalachians, mortality is most likely at elevations above 3,000 feet. Dogwood; Hebes; Lavender (good for butterflies) Mahonia; Currants (Rubus) Thyme; Viburnums; Are there any other shrubs I should avoid? Redlin, S.C. 1991. Influence of site factors on dogwood anthracnose in the Nantahala Mountain range of western North Carolina. The health of southern forests. 1994). p. 42. Dogwood Lake is a 3.5-acre waterbody in Trumbull, Connecticut. Flowering Cornus (dogwood) trees are grown for their showy coloured bracts in late spring and early summer. During that period, the number of plots with severe epidemics (more than 25 percent of foliage blighted) increased by 638 percent. 32:61-73. 1983. 1983. Plant Disease. Both Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge's wetlands and uplands have been impacted by invasive plant species. Red-osier dogwood is by far our most common native dogwood. 1). Extension Service. Find Free Themes and plugins. Other names for this tree include Gray dogwood and panicled dogwood. Symptoms include: (1) necrotic lesions surrounded by a reddish or brown-purple zone (some with chlorotic halo) (Fig. This species is invasive, but is considered a wetland plant, so it is not counted as invasive in our survey. Unfortunately, much of the lake is occupied by the two invasive species: Brazilian waterweed and parrotfeather. Knighten, M. Windham, K. Langdon, F. Hendrix, R. and Roncadori. Invasive Species. Canadian Forest Service. Davidson, Jr. 1979. and C.R. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is the species most people think of when the word dogwood is mentioned.Although it is considered one of the favorite trees in the south, there are two other species, kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) and Cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas), which will grow in all areas of South Carolina except along the coast from Charleston to Savannah, Ga. Invasive species is the bane of parks across the city, said Chris Frelke, the city’s director of Parks, Recreation and Community Facilities. Defoliation of affected dogwoods is common in the Southern Appalachians (Britton 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. 1988. Hoffard, W.H., D.H. Marx, and H.D. 1996) Dogwood Anthracnose | National Invasive Species Information Center 8 p. Windham, M.T., M.E. Plant Disease 80(4):349-358. Blighting commonly occurs throughout the canopy of understory C. florida, or within the interior canopy or on epicormic branches of exposed trees. Want create site? As of 1999, anthracnose had killed 49.7 percent of the native dogwood trees in 24 western counties of North Carolina (USFS 2001). 1992). Windham, and S.C. Redlin. Plant Disease. Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. 1992. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Green Gardening Program. Northern Swamp Dogwood. is dogwood invasive. Cornell University. Figure 1. It grows up to a height of 4 to 15 feet, and its subgenera are Swida. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood (Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. 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