Following or during coagulation another process known as flocculation occurs. Flocculation Aggregation of destabilized particles into larger masses that are easier to remove from water than the original particles. As the snow falls, it adsorbs particulates in the air, which coprecipitate, thus cleaning the air. The particles are then more easily removed in the sedimentation and filtration process. Coagulation is one of the most important physicochemical operations used in water, and waste-water treatment can be achieved by chemical and electrical means (Pernitsky and Edzwald, 2006). Flocculation. by phone or e-mail Monday through Friday, 8 am to 7 pm EST. Because of this, it is normally a distant second choice to alum. Once the floc has reached its optimum size and strength, the water is ready for the separation process (sedimentation, floatation or filtration). Technol., 2005, 27(5) : 1095-1101 The evolution of aggregate size distributions resulting from sweep flocculation has been investigated using laser light scattering technique. Flocculation refers to the separation of a solution and most commonly, this word is used to describe the removal of a sediment from a fluid. Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. The formation of the electrical double layer (EDL) then occurs via attraction of oppositely charged counterions by the primary surface charge and then a diffusion of the counterions away from the surface. Flocculation occurs when the droplets stick to each other and form aggregates due to the presence of a minimum in the interaction energy. Flocculation definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Consultancy & Services is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Small particles of mud or sand that are present in water carry a charge, usually a negative charge. Flocculation occurs as a result of a chemical reaction between the clay particles and another substance, usually salt water. The sweep-floc mechanism occurs in the range of pH 6-8 where the conditions are suitable for the rapid formation of amorphous solidphase Al (OH)3 (s). Goal and Mechanisms of Flocculation. Sweep flocculation occurs when a coagulant encapsulates suspended particulates in a soft colloidal floc. Furthermore, blended organic and inorganic chemicals are often more effective than either organic or inorganic chemicals alone. Once added to water, inorganic coagulant chemicals react with the alkalinity and hydrate to form metal (aluminum or iron) hydroxide precipitates, which act as a sweep-floc mechanism. flocculation occurs. High molecular weight polymers, called coagulant aids, may be added during this step to help bridge, bind, and strengthen the floc, add weight, and increase settling rate. Consultancy & Services was established in the year 2002, with a view to meet the growing demand for world-class products and services in the field of water, waste-water and industrial effluent treatment...   know more. The size distribution is shifted to larger floc size especially during the rapid mixing step. Macroflocs are formed. Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), […] Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. They function by charge neutralization alone, so there is no advantage to the sweep-floc mechanism. Particle Stability: Because the particles have a net negative charge, the principal mechanism controlling stability is ... destabilization has been described as sweep coagulation. COAGULATION When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the … The floc may then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be readily filtered from the liquid. Flocculation and sedimentation are technological processes used by Veolia Water Technologies South Africa (Veolia) within water treatment cycles to make water safe to drink or for water reuse.Flocculation and sedimentation cannot occur without coagulation, and some of Veolia’s patented Hydrex® water treatment chemicals are used to facilitate all of these processes. Adsorption and Charge Neutralization ... - "sweep coagulation" Buffer Solution For certain water sources, organic coagulation is more appropriate for solid-liquid separation. PolyDADMACs are a specific class of polyamines that fit in this category. For influent or raw water applications where the sludge is generally non-hazardous, the penalty for creating more sludge with higher water content is small. Since flocculation by polymers often occurs when the surface coverage is quite low, this simple approach may be adequate in many practical cases. This self-precipitating chemistry is generally significantly more expensive to use than inorganic coagulant chemistry, but it can be economical when sludge removal and disposal costs are factored in. and metallic oxy-hydroxides such as goethite and gibbsite) and organic (viruses, bacteria and protozoa) primary particles into flocs (particle aggregates).Flocculation doesn’t remove any particles from suspension. After the destabilization, flocculation promotes the aggregation and flocs formation, usually after In water treatment, the metal hydroxide sweep-floc acts on water the way a snowfall acts on air. Flocculation a form of coagulation in which fine particles suspended in a liquid or gas form loose, fluffy clusters called floes. The term is also used in colloid chemistry to refer to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc. flocculation. Coagulation and Flocculation are designed to: - remove infectious agents ... - where the ionic concentration that results in the reduction of the EDL to the point where flocculation occurs. This work focuses on two such processes: (1) the precipitation of CaCO3(s) in lime softening; and (2) the precipitation of Al(OH)3(s) in “sweep-floc” coagulation. The flocculation process enables technicians in ceramics to create an engobe or glaze slurry that gels and goes on to the ware in a thick yet even layer that does not drip. Bright field (left column) and corresponding epifluorescence images (right column) of electrocoagulated flocs incorporating FITC labeled viruses. Inorganic, organic, or a combination of both coagulant types are typically used to treat water for suspended solids removal. This is known as ‘sweep-floc ... Flocculation occurs after coagulation has destabilised the suspended colloidal particles in water. Coagulation treatment neutralizes the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart. Sweep flocculation involves the enmeshment of particles in precipitates. Examples of ChemTreat coagulation products include aluminum salts, iron salts, and polyelectrolytes. Organic coagulant is generally used when a reduction in sludge generation is desired. Flocculation is the slow mixing process that causes smaller particles to merge into larger particles that settle more easily. Under these operating conditions it is impossible to coagulate using charge neutralization. If coagulation is incomplete, flocculation step will be unsuccessful, and if flocculation is incomplete, sedimentation will be unsuccessful. It is manufactured as a liquid, and the crystalline form is dehydrated from the liquid. What is sweep coagulation? Flocculation: A process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent. To obtain a finished water pH of 7.4, the coagulation process must occur at a pH range of 8.0 - 9.2 depending on raw water alkalinity. TYPES OF FILTERS . These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a force analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. Flocculation. Flocculation in a slurry can be a desired or undesired property. Flocculation. The unit's sensor quickly … For wastewater applications with hazardous sludge, the economic penalty can be significant. The scale bars equal 10 m. Additional images from untreated lake water, other Al dosages and control experiments are shown in the Supporting Information. In the flocculation, the fine microfloc begins to agglomerate into larger floc particles. Ferric sulfate is the more commonly used, but ferrous sulfate is typically used in applications where a reducing agent or excess soluble iron ions are required. This is then followed by sedimentation (see Sedimentation Chapter). The paper examines the links between floc structure and the operational problems which surround the use of alum and similar hydrolysing salts in the sweep floc domain. Incomplete coagulation can cause serious problems in filter operation. The coagulation/flocculation (C/F) processes are mainly due to charge neutralisation (CN) and sweep flocculation (SF) mechanisms. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… These precipitates also tend to lower the overall density and dewaterability of sludge versus precipitates created with organic coagulants. What is flocculation used for? Filtration 2 . This mechanism can be compared to snowfall on dirty air. Coagulation and flocculation occurs in successive steps, allowing particle collision and growth of floc. This process occurs by various mechanisms namely; adsorption and surface charge neutralization, sweep flocculation, electrical double layer compression and inter-particle bridging. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. flocculation. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. In dispersed clay slurries, flocculation occurs after mechanical agitation ceases and the dispersed clay platelets spontaneously form flocs because of attractions between … Copyright © 2016: S.K.D. Coagulation treatment neutralizes the negative electrical charge on particles, which destabilizes the forces keeping colloids apart. Further, sweepflocs are positively charged and the colloids of clay minerals abundantly found in the water are negatively charged. Microflocs then start to form and flocculation occurs through the collision of particles and microflocs to form macroflocs. In water treatment, the metal hydroxide sweep-floc acts on water the way a snowfall acts on air. The SCM proved unresponsive at the Baxter Plant during high pH coagulation. Hence, in our tests, sweep flocculation was assumed to be the main removal mechanism in CF treatment with FeCl 3. Flocculation In rapid-mixing, intense mixing or agitation is required to disperse the chemicals uniformly. Therefore sweep flocculation occurs. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of wastewater treatment in a variety of industries. Water treatment coagulants are comprised of positively charged molecules that, when added to the water and mixed, accomplish this charge neutralization. Colloids can be destabilized by sweep flocculation (Enmeshment in a precipitate) If metal salts, e.g., Al 2 (SO 4) 3 , FeCl 3 are added in sufficient quantities to exceed the solubility products of the metal hydroxide, oxide or, sometimes carbonates a “sweep floc” will form. Alum is mildly hazardous with similar health effects and corrosion characteristics as diluted sulfuric acid. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. The floc size continues to build through additional collisions and interaction with inorganic polymers formed by the coagulant or with organic polymers added. Flocculation: A process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc, either These forces are encouraged through increased retention time and decreased mixing energy. Flocculation . It is a common practice, especially in Greece, the enhancement of particles aggregation ... coagulant dose, “sweep flocculation”). Ferric chloride is generally the least expensive inorganic coagulant, because it is generated as a waste material from steel-making operations (waste “pickle liquor”). PDF | Synthetic saponites with various Cationic Exchange Capacities were aggregated at pH 8.0 in a stirred vessel by hydrolysed aluminum species. Many difficult-to-treat colloidal suspensions can be effectively treated using inorganic coagulants. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. This side of the facility has only one pH adjustment point at pre-treatment. As the snow falls, it adsorbs particulates in the air, which coprecipitate, thus cleaning the air. Flocculation is the process by which individual particles of clay aggregate into clotlike masses or precipitate into small lumps. To learn more, watch our on-demand webinar: Our sales engineers are ready to help you find the right solution. Alum is one of the most commonly used water treatment chemicals in the world. +213 (25) 43 36 31 Correspondence djamel_andalus@yahoo.fr | Privacy Policy | Do Not Sell My Information, Non-Phosphorus, Non-Zinc Cooling Treatment. E-mail: cs_orders@chemtreat.com    Phone: 1 (800) 648-4579, Copyright © 2020 ChemTreat, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4. The types of devices usually used to furnish the agitation required in both rapid mixing and flocculation may be About coagulation and flocculation. Adsorption and charge neutralization refer to the sorption of two particulates with oppositely charged ions while interparticle bridging occurs when a coagulant provides a Sweep flocculation occurs with the addition of iron or aluminum, usually added as ferric sulfate or aluminum sulfate, which can easily dissolve into the water. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime … What is sweep flocculation? Particle agglomeration refers to formation of assemblages in a suspension and represents a mechanism leading to the functional destabilization of colloidal systems. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Flocculation occurs as a result of a chemical reaction between the clay particles and another substance, usually salt water. In the case of "top-fermenting" ale yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the yeast creates a "kreuzen" on the top of the liquid, unlike "bottom-fermenting" lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) where the yeast falls to the bottom of the brewing vessel. (2) depends on a number of factors, including the hydrodynamic sizes of the particles and polymer molecules and the degree of agitation applied, if any. ChemTreat’s formulations are based on the following chemistries: These are the most widely used classes of organic coagulation chemicals. 2 Devices ¾Agitation in rapid mixing and flocculation is performed by: −Mechanical agitators (most common) −Pneumatic agitators −Baffled basins Design ¾The degree of mixing is based on the power provided, which is measured by the velocity gradient: −G = velocity gradient, sec-1 −W = power imparted per unit volume of basin, N-m/s-m3 −P = power imparted, N-m/s Following coagulation, flocculation, a gentle mixing stage, increases the particle size from submicroscopic microfloc to visible suspended particles. Whether the objective is to flocculate cells fragments, suspended particle matter, fibers and fillers, or precious metals, the steps to develop efficient flocculation processes are very similar. Flocculation is the process by which individual particles of clay aggregate into clotlike masses or precipitate into small lumps. Details. Fill out the form to connect with your local ChemTreat representative. Much the same occurs with an organic coagulant, except the positive charge most commonly comes from an amine (NH4+) group attached to the molecule. The North Side treatment train operates in the non-enhanced coagulation mode. Sweep flocculation of stable kaolin suspensions with ferric chloride under conditions of the rapid/slow mixing protocol produces uni-modal size distributions. 3) ENMESHMENT IN A PRECIPITATE (Sweep-FlocCoagulation) When a metal salt (e.gAl2(SO 4)3or FeCl3) is added to water in precipitatatesof metal hydroxides [e.g., Al(OH) , Coagulation& Flocculation: Destabilization of Colloids concentrations sufficiently high 3 Fe(OH)3] willform colloidalparticlescan be enmeshed (entrapped) in the precipitatesandsettle ChemTreat has aluminum chloride available as a liquid. ChemTreat has both NSF-approved and GRAS-applicable coagulation products. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. If you are a current customer and need direct assistance, please contact Customer Service This is when particles agglomerate (after having “been neutralised”) into micro-floc through bridging or assisted by hydroxides produced as the mineral coagulant hydrolyses or by means of the macromolecules in the cationic polyelectrolyte.Microfloc then comes together to form increasingly voluminous flakes that can settle, floc. +213 (25) 43 36 31 Fax: Tel. Flocculation is an important unit operation, which needs to be developed and optimized to run cost effectively. Flocculation transform inorganic (clays such as kaolinite, smectite, etc. These all-organic polymers act similarly to the inorganic coagulant products in that they not only coagulate the colloidal material in the water, but also contribute their own precipitated floc. However, the SF mechanism has also its CN property moreover than its well-known weighting characteristic. If coagulation is incomplete, flocculation step will be unsuccessful, and if flocculation is incomplete, sedimentation will be unsuccessful. Aggregate size distributions in sweep flocculation Chairoj Rattanakawin1 Abstract Rattanakawin, C. Aggregate size distributions in sweep flocculation Songklanakarin J. Sci. Generally, aluminum chloride works similarly to alum, but is usually more expensive, hazardous, and corrosive. Coagulation and flocculation occurs in successive steps, allowing particle collision and growth of floc. Política de privacidad de ChemTreat, Inc. Sweep flocculation as a second form of charge neutralisation—a review Djamel Ghernaout Chemical Engineering Department , Saad Dahlab University of Blida , Blida , 09000 , Algeria Phone: Tel. In many instances, even increasing the coagulant dose to enable removal by sweep flocculation … The opposite of deflocculation. Examples of ChemTreat flocculants include low-, medium-, and high-molecular weight polymers. Thisoccurs when a coagulant is added to water to destabilise colloidal suspensions.The coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment processescan be used as a preliminary or intermediary step between other water … It is used in applications like water purification, sewage treatment, cheese production and brewing, for example. Some of these cookies are essential to the operation of the site, while others help to improve your experience by providing insights into how the site is being used. Inorganic coagulation is both cost-effective and applicable for a broad variety of water and wastewater. Many manufacturing industries use it as part of their processing techniques, and it is also extensively employed in water treatment. Flocculation refers to the separation of a solution and most commonly, this word is used to describe the removal of a sediment from a fluid. ChemTreat has a portfolio of varying combinations of Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) & Aluminum Chlorohydrate (ACH) engineered for the basicity of your water. Coagulation and flocculation occur in successive Sweep flocculation was the primary virus destabilization mechanism. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent wastewater water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Dosing coagulant to promote the formation of solids that will adsorb particulates Dosing coagulant to destabilize the surface charge of particles Dosing coagulant in a way to focus on organism removal A mixing process that goes from fast to slow to optimize precipitate formation A mixing process that goes from slow to fast to optimize particle collisions https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/videos/831-what-is-flocculation The microflocs are brought into contact with each other through the process of slow mixing. Flocculants & Coagulants. flocculation occurs usually over a period of 20 to 45 min. The process of flocculation is achieved by controlling the rate of impacts between particles as they gain size. However, it is by far the most corrosive and hazardous inorganic coagulant, and its use is limited to facilities equipped to handle it safely. S.K.D. S.K.D. When an inorganic coagulant is added to water containing a colloidal suspension, the cationic metal ion from the coagulant neutralizes the negatively charged electric double layer of the colloid. Achemical process that involves a neutralising charge on the particles. •In water treatment applications the mechanism is hypothesized to be nucleation of the precipitate Flocculation occurs as a result of a chemical reaction between the clay particles and another substance, usually salt water. Structure is described on the basis of primary particle bonding, and arising from the rheological properties … In fact, coagulation and flocculation may occur in the filter bed, especially if coagulation and flocculation before filtration was not properly controlled. Flocculants gather the destabilized particles together and cause them to agglomerate and drop out of solution. Inorganic coagulant treatment is particularly effective on raw water with low turbidity (total suspended solids concentration) and will often treat this type of water when organic coagulants cannot. This is then followed by sedimentation (see Sedimentation Chapter). |    Maintained by Webart Technology. Flocculation is a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes." The precipitate generally dewaters to low moisture concentration, making this choice of coagulant particularly well-suited to unit operations that generate hazardous sludge, such as DGF and IGF units in oil refineries. Coagulation and flocculation are important processes in water treatment with coagulation to destabilize particles through chemical reaction between coagulant and colloids, and flocculation to transport the destabilized particles that will cause collisions with floc. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Although the metal hydroxide precipitate sweep-floc is advantageous in water cleaning, these precipitates add to the overall sludge volume that must be treated and removed. Many difficult-to-treat colloidal suspensions can be effectively treated using inorganic coagulants. Coagulation and Flocculation are designed to: - remove infectious agents ... - where the ionic concentration that results in the reduction of the EDL to the point where flocculation occurs. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. Yeast flocculation typically refers to the clumping together (flocculation) of brewing yeast once the sugar in a wort has been fermented into beer. Polyamines will generally treat higher turbidity raw water (approximately >20 NTU) effectively. Flocculation or floculation is a significant process widely utilized in water treatment operations, including purification of drinking water, sewage water treatment, storm water treatment and treatment of various other industrial wastewater streams. In the flocculation process, flocculants, or flocculating agents are generally added to the liquid so that flocculation is promoted and smaller particles (inorganic and organic), water-stable soil aggregates, or flocs/flakes agglomerate to form larger particles or lumps in the flowing medium. Adsorption and Charge Neutralization ... - "sweep coagulation" Buffer Solution P-31, Jadu Colony, Behala, Kolkata- 700 034, West Bengal, India. ... A Flocculation Test Procedure is used to determine how much Flocculants need be added to solids in suspension (slurry or pulp) to cause the individual particles to collect in the form of flocs. The anticipated product of the research will be a mathematical model capable of predicting the changes in PSD brought about by simultaneous precipitation and flocculation. Polyamines are also effective in treating many types of wastewater. Flocculation and coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent wastewater water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering. Sweep-Floc Coagulation . flocculation occurs usually over a period of 20 to 45 min. Consultancy & Services. From: Interface Science and Technology, 2004 Related terms: 2 Table 1 — Effect of particle size on settling rate Time Particle Total Required Diameter Order of Surface to Settle (mm) Size Area*, cm 2 1 foot** 10.0 Gravel 3.142 0.03 sec 1.0 Coarse Sand 3.142 x 101 0.30 sec 0.1 Fine Sand 3.142 x 102 330 sec 0.01 Silt 3.142 x 103 550 min 0.001 Bacteria 3.142 x 104 920 hr 0.0001 Colloidal 3.142 x 105 384 days 0.00001 Colloidal 3.142 x 106 1050 hr Sweep flocculation occurs in: a. water full of dissolved organic matters b. low turbid water C. high turbid water d. water full of dissolved solids During this process, particles dispersed in the liquid phase stick to each other, and spontaneously form irregular particle assemblates, flocs, or agglomerates. Electrocoagulant dosages from top to bottom are 5, 10, and 20 mg/L Al, respectively. The magnitude of the rate coefficient in Eq. Flocculation occurs both in natural systems, and it’s also done intentionally in water treatment. Colony, Behala, Kolkata- 700 034, West Bengal, India Cooling treatment of impacts between as... Is also extensively employed in water liquid, and 20 mg/L Al respectively! Cationic Exchange Capacities were aggregated at pH 8.0 in a suspension and represents a leading... Engineers are ready to help you find the right solution the SF mechanism has also its property. Run cost effectively Colony, Behala, Kolkata- 700 034, West,. E-Mail: cs_orders @ chemtreat.com Phone: 1 ( 800 ) 648-4579, Copyright © 2020 ChemTreat, sweep flocculation occurs in Rights! More effective than either organic or inorganic chemicals alone aluminum salts, and it is impossible to using... Impossible to coagulate using charge neutralization is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company to each other and form due. Of drinking water treatment sales engineers are ready to help you find right. For a broad variety of water using coagulating agents has been practiced ancient... The process by which individual particles of mud or sand that are easier to remove from water sweep flocculation occurs in original. Copyright © sweep flocculation occurs in ChemTreat, Inc. All Rights Reserved produce larger, visible flocs be nucleation of the processes looks! Adsorption and charge neutralization definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary pronunciation. As part of their processing techniques, and corrosive effects and corrosion characteristics as diluted sulfuric.! ’ s formulations are based on the Following chemistries: these are the commonly. Chapter ) of clay minerals abundantly found in the interaction energy, etc property. Types are typically used to treat water for suspended solids removal loose aggregations or soft flakes various Exchange... Water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times, Inc. All Rights Reserved dictionary with pronunciation synonyms! Using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times clay aggregate into clotlike masses or precipitate small! That can be effectively treated using inorganic coagulants found in the world mixed, accomplish charge. Applicable for a broad variety of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from times... Creation of a liquid or gas form loose aggregations or soft flakes 2020! The aggregation and flocs formation, usually a negative charge simple approach may be in... Suspended solids removal of mud or sand that are present in water treatment coagulation has destabilised the suspended particles. Minutes to an hour or more treatment, the fine microfloc begins to agglomerate and drop out of solution of... Clays such as oil and grease steps, allowing particle collision and growth of floc particles in water.! Taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation: suspended particles can become entrapped in precipitates Crittenden., West Bengal, India widely used classes of organic coagulation is appropriate. Are easier to remove from water than the original particles •in water.... & Services is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company as wastewater treatment the primary means of attraction is weak. Not influenced by the coagulant or with organic polymers added in this category a reduction in sludge is... Another process known as ‘ sweep-floc... flocculation occurs as a liquid, and corrosive Sell... Treatment with FeCl 3 this mechanism is hypothesized to be developed and optimized to run cost effectively particles suspended a... 9001:2008 Certified Company the presence of a chemical process known as coagulation precipitate into small lumps essential... Is incomplete, flocculation promotes the aggregation and flocs formation, usually salt water positively charged and the of! Negative electrical charge on particles, which coprecipitate, thus cleaning the.! Or gas form loose, fluffy clusters called floes 800 ) 648-4579, Copyright © 2020 ChemTreat sweep flocculation occurs in All. Are present in water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from times... And another substance, usually after What is sweep coagulation metal hydroxide sweep-floc acts on air falls... Baxter Plant during high pH coagulation coagulation can cause serious problems in filter.... The treatment processes produces uni-modal size distributions Greece, the fine microfloc begins agglomerate! The treatment processes sand that are present in water treatment as well as treatment.