0000004402 00000 n 19 0 obj This is consistent with many field observations of detonations at low ambient temperatures. Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x, HNO 3, NH 3 and H 2 O. [(\277Hw\223\201j\372\214`+\234z\350\211\031j) (\277Hw\223\201j\372\214`+\234z\350\211\031j)] 0000002655 00000 n %“Œ‹ž ReportLab Generated PDF document http://www.reportlab.com sustaining) decomposition that can spread throughout the mass to give substantial toxic fumes, even when the initial heat source is removed. 10.6 Hazardous decomposition products Polymerization is not expected to occur. Also not included is the performance of AN as the oxidizer in rocket propellants or in explosives such as ANFO. 0000000260 00000 n A gas or thermal explosion from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate as a result of heating has caused a low order explosion; 3. endobj Ammonium chloride can be an irritant to body tissues. As the temperature rises, the rate of decomposition increases. 11.0 ... because of the in situ provision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate itself. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound produced in both solid and liquid form that is com - monly used in fertilizers. 0000008029 00000 n The heat of formation of ammonium nitrate is the heat liberated when one mole of solid ammonium nitrate forms at constant pressure from its component elements in their standard states. Ammonium nitrate has been used for centuries in warfare, but is also a mainstay of commercial nitrogenous fertilizers. A central role is assigned to nitrous acid (HNO2): sequestering NO prevents its formation, base inhibitors keep it in the non-reactive form of the nitrite ion (pKa of HNO2 ∼ 3), and urea in acidic conditions decomposes it to harmless N2. 1 0 obj Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The sign of the enthalpy of the reaction reveals the direction of heat flow. Contamination can reduce this to 20 atmospheres. 0000000150 00000 n Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the performance of the propellants. 9 0 obj Stored quantities should be limited, as should storage duration. << /BaseFont /Helvetica-BoldOblique /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F5 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> << /Outlines 20 0 R /PageMode /UseNone /Pages 17 0 R /Type /Catalog >> 3 0 obj %%EOF. startxref 0000002265 00000 n toppr. ∆ sub H°: Enthalpy of sublimation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). endobj 15 0 obj The endothermic peaks The endothermic peaks at 86 and 127 C are the first and second crystalloid change of ammonium nitrate, In the event of contact, wash affected areas with water. /Info 16 0 R /Root 15 0 R /Size 21 >> Ammonium and nitrate ions as RedOx components are needed together with a catalyst in a concentrated narrow zone. Because solid ammonium nitrate can undergo explosive decomposition when heated in a confined space, government regulations have been imposed on its shipment and storage. The effect of heat on the Group 2 carbonates. Cause of second explosion The cause of the initiation of the second explosion could not be clearly determined. Gb"0W:P`"N*!^H!C;rT=+S/Ci$mgJ2BG'I&!m1EQ$:3SY'J2ush'=V1";e4m(>10QPE8WQ/L')A5Kg]Q`8&qtVp.cFr$1hKSM%kFR%gHZLD3zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz!.b*O>)g81\E&hN3]'fXRTX`#8D;j],B;76;5qK05NRbpmA!10c886cKV\S>pW).([Df&9Ne)c@d`eF16IPjZHK+#-g1"gkp(j!,(*+!Mp=Ih0,9sV8eF)`W0$Pq.+scQZ,J),\+Vu[Hqh#cW3)OI0g,*qCS-I*mI[dMGMj:G=%iu^+cPR;[qrjeW^HSg1,(B?!CsDHgT&Q\LF*S9*j`Xh6D-L7nFZfD'r:*8X+]"YdLE;>2092Sbl\1#FI/S3U+YUDT"p]5$4jef_Z$LPqY4Pnsj>EpXp[=.h9B([F=us3bNkraWMb>^_]C2>5!h(hh9_[:[Z$U[ITpot\pYYue4.\HrCG/s:hL9g!nk%=$NB(3k/$?WNY.5lcH7;$s%%P:q4,.eaN2!>$nkp,CY-RQn,;-&4*Nu;8Z#IMK7e$TY9XI6ZC4nlms\&O1F2EC2!;ZE6sYr%jJk*oPGkm=%Y[GPso^29GG$)^P;euc2c6Z%IfmY[?5oQk8O^qa@F`]^2rX"s8=7X&emf(P_KO*r$]KRc_KO*r$e-VX4aV4Qrop?RG'WVs\F7/?X.2Wl[Td?ITM? /Title (Ammonium nitrate Datasheet) >> They are not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose. I am totally clueless on enthalpy. Ammonium nitrate should be stored separately from other flammable and explosive materials and potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe buildings. When heated it will melt, decompose and release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides (NO x) and ammonia gas (NH 3). At relatively low temperatures, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding acceleration at each stage. The reaction is . The explosive nature of ammonium nitrate is due to its decomposition into gaseous products (nitrogen, H 2 O vapor, and oxygen) and also due to the exothermic nature of the reaction. endobj 0000002853 00000 n The decomposition temperature of pure ammonium nitrate is 170 °C, but recently Gunawan and Zhang calculated that an intimate mixture of ammonium nitrate and pyrite can decompose at temperatures as low as 50 °C in blast holes more than 0.2 m in diameter. From Reference (7), under fire conditions, ammonia can also produce nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide in a reaction with the oxygen in the air. 0000000375 00000 n ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. @u5NDclbAuSpUSE*H]A4s7ObE+f)1Xb+DpCQpS`n0Co8b\8rjhUB3.,u!RX=M*rON^*'@fj'W-6Bs%knm[djH`csfM*jJV`Q.f%J(WU*R\kg?+\6$)\m:OPk4^d)mRTUC+PioJ58@VYZ2(7,5oWN.O=7V[j\h;)@A)JCIG46~>endstream The decomposition products of ammonium nitrate can vary, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not necessary for our calculations. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. << /Author (Chem\351o - http://www.chemeo.com) /CreationDate (D:20181218101032+00'00') /Creator (\(unspecified\)) /Keywords () /Producer (ReportLab PDF Library - www.reportlab.com) /Subject (\(unspecified\)) © 2017 The Authors. In the event of … Therefore when furthermore heating HI decomposes to H 2 and I 2 gases. 2 . The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) assigns solid oxidizers to Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 , or Class 4 where Class 4 is the most oxidizing. Steady-state Reaction Temperatures and Reaction Rate By George Feick and R. M. Hainer, 1954 ; Reaction Rates of Ammonium Nitrate in Detonation Melvin A. Cook, Earle B. Mayfield, and William S. Partridge The Journal of Physical Chemistry 1955 59 (8), 675-680 DOI: 10.1021/j150530a002 Examples are shown in Figures 5-7. sulphites). toppr. See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate hazard classifications. Answer. The retarding effect of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the emulsion in the low temperature regime is quite obvious. heat. << /ID 6 0 obj 8 0 obj The overall enthalpy of the reaction is –36 kilojoules, which means that the decomposition of 1 mole of ammonium nitrate releases 36 kJ of heat. << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 2021 >> May emit toxic vapors of NOx and NH 3 when heated to decomposition. These are all unacceptable for human exposure. endobj Moreover, this study highlighted the critical role of the water that appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Sridhar2 1 ... the use of Ammonium nitrate (AN) as a propellant is This paper describes the thermal decomposition analysis of Ammonium nitrate based composite solid materials. Nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this method only. Scanning Calorimetry, DSC and Heat Flux Calorimetry, HFC). 0000006590 00000 n Hydrotalcite adsorbs NOx gases to inhibit the thermal decomposition. Evidently, ammonium nitrate under fire exposure is now a well-established explosion hazard and has been responsible for some of the greatest industrial accidents to date. stream answr. << /Annots [ 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595.2756 841.8898 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources << /Font 1 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] >> /Rotate 0 However, the presence of other substances may turn the attitude into an explosive decomposition rate. endobj 5 0 obj endobj mentions a list … endobj This … Moreover, this study highlighted the critical role of the water that appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The kinetic regularities of the decomposition in the temperature range 70–150°C are established. The resulting heat and pressure from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate may build up if the reaction takes place in a confined space and the heat and gases created are not able to dissipate. [], and was also used for the initial development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods []. 13 0 obj (d) Taking an online class & unable to just ask my teacher … The force of the ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down. 0000004042 00000 n NO adsorbing clay minerals (hydrotalcite) were effective inhibitors, indicating multiple mechanisms of inhibition. According … All the carbonates in this Group undergo thermal decomposition to give the metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. Molten aluminium contacting either a water source or molten ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction. : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). answr. 10 0 obj 16 0 obj Avoid heat, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. May evolve toxic gases if heated to decomposition. Detonation may occur at 80 atmospheres. : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). Ammonium chloride can be an irritant to body tissues. endobj decomposition involving various nitrogen-based fertilizers in the distribution chain. When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition. Accordingly, the investigative literature on AN thermolysis is immense, of which this review endeavors to present a comprehensive and contemporary compilation. 0000003609 00000 n 0000004472 00000 n 11 0 obj << /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Height 250 /Length 1553 /Mask [ 250 255 250 255 250 255 ] Published by Elsevier Ltd. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003. influenceontheburningratebeforethebreak(thepressure exponent,n¼0.85–0.95),andaweakerdependenceafterit (n¼0.5–0.6). Ammonium nitrate based NPK fertilizers are thermally stable and are not prone to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions of storage and transport. Get Instant Solutions, … stream When heated excessively (e.g. Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of … Answered By . << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://www.chemeo.com) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 126.0629 306.0945 163.8529 318.0945 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> 0000003276 00000 n These products will produce nitric acid. 8079 AN is a Class 2 oxidizer. Ammonium Nitrate ABN: 81 008 668 371 CSBP-IF1875 Version No. May emit toxic vapors of NOx and NH 3 when heated to decomposition. You may associate ammonium nitrate with explosives; it's commonly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics as well as fertilizer. 0000004132 00000 n However the presence of impurities (organic and/or inorganic) will often reduce the temperature point when heat is being generated. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. All of these carbonates are white solids, and the oxides that are produced are also white solids. Answered By . Now we discuss decomposition halides ( Cl-, Br-, I-) of NH 4 + ions. The mechanism of the spontaneous detonation of ammonium nitrate in reactive grounds. ...Ammonium nitrate on heating decomposes to give nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and water. The formation of NO gas bubbles at the end of an induction period was observed, which led to the evolution of brown NO2 gas on contact with air. DO NOT USE the following as extinguishing … Ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O + 2 H 2 O Example of Thermal dissociation. It is shown that in the presence of carbon black, the decomposition rate of solid ammonium nitrate increases strongly (by more than seven orders of magnitude). The agreement between theoretical and experimental results allows an understanding of the thermal decomposition behaviours of the two sodium salts when exposed to ammonium nitrate. The thermal decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate (AN) are reviewed. ANFO versus Emulsion Scans of the decomposition of pure ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate… Ammonium nitrate is a colourless crystalline substance (melting point 169.6 °C [337.3 °F]). Adsorption of NOx gas slows the decomposition of ammonium nitrate with pyrite. ∆ f G°: Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol). Please include phases. Ammonium nitrate and pyrite react to produce nitric oxide and nitrous acid. ](Q>=E3fm1&uB`npJCHF9I;>FE.3Vl)rn_OGd!4R#K%/ajYPR8NKG2Z).jG@%Lrn^Ju-XLl2pE!N]fG"99"[.LS@lhO#Mb?GooAi`]5f?r0EnK,5j_IHV+e8VmXR8Y$DTep*74\O8_CKfR8T=J;9\7fC:^I'C/=N!mL"VA-3EBYG>1XWnEho>]`UGgA677;FC$Gp876"Xt3fs6P>LbD[7NKR$@FEs*b!OM0%9-)e4?`I`Ac"?J!fP*I>e$!Cr]pp%tN$t0_*g(e>W^M+/+_h.TUAR`(`B>g0#%r?^5jPtWL23'Z`YD;R[Bsq=l"lWn,4P8=j%c6SXAL9m(i>J7)WJoCPt$A46dV4\N"'B>JR)S&45%5gpu8>!0h!d^KqVH[A1]qm'f*kBf#%apicrqBl59hG6Bf!jMG`qNS:KJrrd")*4dY+U,1Xma)B1*fTM.+-VI`h_<8*b-(7i>701!8+^Rh.u#.TBFr'c#!rR!7OWpr)h?3;Q+CRUAH5=o3>;PaU6eAWr2DaRMQ#-b5(gCsY8)K/*q$-%n7?o)=>'mu96HW1KKJVZA$4+t7SQl@nZejPc$at#pMfbud_c[XofS2h['k@Gf0G1FX$\l@DMVFIZXD/$Z`K-oll\*L/U9:,]Uj&[CRqM_^V8"QjmPG4TAOg9*kYq(cRYe:6R&d$[FX%,g46PSGGkZinVp5E'HDt*R#MMpjuJZ2YS$U^?jD7=t[dOT38U/5+(@g`42`ab]+li1=$sYG*:fo1?siHUP'U6fUuLr&*%P*C`IpH*bWQ6@!iOY!,sUWulhlSOP%Z5M5&;[06XIb!q29PiJ!S=Z$>TApS0=2%1#(XoL72Mm:4c9J!I-nKJS=j\@Y$'71HGIW?n9d=[T#8nI]-N%,N#rb5TWl!b6R(8mU150c/oG_O1F9DC@CIgS(endstream << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://www.chemeo.com/cid/68-914-2/Ammonium%20nitrate) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 62.69291 321.6791 333.8929 333.6791 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> A paper by Cagnina et al. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). Decomposition of ammonium halides. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), 10% nano TAGN blended with AP and AN, and samples “[90% AP + 10% (nano TAGN)]” and “[90% AN + 10% (nano TAGN)]” were obtained, respectively. << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ci990307l) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 144.3629 640.4882 346.1529 652.4882 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> It is shown that in the presence of carbon black, the decomposition rate of solid ammonium nitrate increases strongly (by more than seven orders of magnitude). I 2 is a purple gas. Of these, confinement stands out as a crucial determinant – elevated pressure increases gas-solid phase interactions under decomposition, promoting exothermic behavior, even for pure AN. Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. Thermal decomposition is accelerated by NOx and nitrous acid catalysts. The decomposition process is exothermic (heat is released) and is accompanied by the production of copious quantities of fumes containing water vapour and … The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) assigns solid oxidizers to Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 , or Class 4 where Class 4 is the most oxidizing. 0000000000 65535 f MEDIUM. ...Ammonium nitrate on heating decomposes to give nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and water. Thank you in advance for your help! endobj Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia, being produced. Gb!#[?#SIU'R_Wrs);e@0ulXD+0"bL12=g(shn-.+Ia8Q8,>7eZ.<8TsJ\Fs7=1[KK-;nW5lrnESk'!ndF6p2W(lJn?E!hKn8WG*&d@ngO&q)A;Ng74u#9Zg;*/_&J=6i"f.%m9X=]>#^lkl'`B)[N=8I7@eC?$IN2lrOA_F?mdV#Lq(1r*#m5E)pGc3%^b3AmG'J5%?iYV(k%Q%9CC^sY3.QW.CD(BW6kb%-f%Z0HEMCe-C2VDZkR_Yii-^UJ0NK8L>uc-?EU$Q=og4T?43XiEXjX[ZurZ4/UJh4[!qh3Os*T.WR4`Jq+>.FB4="ioMnm@5LuB=F):>QnVietK>[?`'RJDYQAk-H0ZVn\EgV$L@I-=V?rXhaR+h'O[j)Qr9KC;4N5M/A%10(;,4kt28"ZkLk#7cG^J7R%:O.tG[HS7bejk)[B]\OVmn1#1mjagoTK6*9;sN>>Z$*0NRBel-EtQG"Ai8be93u6A+D3BlFhtGHV3-5YC%!XCqT/TDs(gF,>Ikp:&"ilW;U8KPm9!a?6*8s8A=8>;W>a\'Tu_4:s'Kk[TjIA'.jc=Z?`;T+m[0g0d32Y6TQIStLIsL(F7ICcn!H0)#JTdo0]4AL$o2g@8s\U.`G;=e2'3sto24]]l2h0I^Lu*Ddl13:/cL4\j*,?.83gL)^jT,#EgcpdbXaS3SVJ[FD\DXo84J%SE3]0'SWjV^PhS/5=*@DiDqo^[O^W:e"2!u.:OmW'a]"N=!FdJ)KaYgNe,N#h[kLs\*FuPf+4[/7ZI.B6#?^V=s1u.]6CD$!&aB>$SdmV>fdZYrqW;WqhJ@#Hj:Oeo/U9_M;/sf4qb^%#N8n;@J7B,APj,c61CAh$EZ4r5V#Du0J9mlQ('X;PH`]@c4K#V\jCY'SAA!j:r%49okrhgm@VYVA-\P5KJY01BknsNO%hWs%rE51@0AN!;e(^mddfXc_QVT$VEt5IrZ6hE^gI01@Mj`R! << /BaseFont /Symbol /Encoding /SymbolEncoding /Name /F3 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> The kinetic regularities of the decomposition in the temperature range 70–150°C are established. Health and safety data are shown on the safety data sheets available from suppliers and from various governments. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures normally well above 200°C. ∆ sub H°: Enthalpy of sublimation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). The decomposition reaction can be summarized as The mechanism of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) and of ammonium nitrate (AN) emulsions has been investigated. Download : Download high-res image (95KB)Download : Download full-size image. Our results have implications in industries where NOx emissions can cause significant environmental problems for both aquatic and marine life as well as for human health. When you add ammonium nitrate to water, you have a good example of an endothermic reaction. Ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O + 2 H 2 O Example of Thermal dissociation. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 1342 >> The balanced equation is: NH4NO3 --> N2O + 2 H2O The answer is in kJ. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). 0000002383 00000 n These fertilizers include, for example, ammonium nitrate (AN), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), NPK’s, ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN), potassium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphates (MAP, DAP). Known as thermal decomposition, when the solution decomposes into nitrous oxide and water vapor, this process requires a temperature of between 180 degrees Celsius (356 degrees Fahrenheit) to 250 degrees Celsius (482 degrees Fahrenheit). Decomposition creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides. ANFO versus Emulsion Scans of the decomposition of pure ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate/5 wt % … But not all ammonium nitrate experiments end with a bang. xref The decomposition reactions have a complex nature, thus reducing the predictability of the hazardous properties of a fertiliser. Nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this method only. [ 4 ], and was also used for the initial development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ 5 ]. /Subtype /Image /Type /XObject /Width 250 >> However, it will support and increase the rate of combustion in the presence of flammable or combustible materials even in the absence of oxygen. The thermal decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate (AN) are reviewed. 0000003399 00000 n Upvote(0) How satisfied are you with the answer? MEDIUM. Arrhenius plots for these ammonium nitrate composite systems were constructed. But HI is not stable to heat. << /Count 0 /Type /Outlines >> endobj % ReportLab generated PDF document -- digest (http://www.reportlab.com) It is highly soluble in water; heating of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide (laughing gas). Notice that the enthalpies can be either positive or negative. Ammonium nitrate does not burn. This will help us to improve better. << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/H4N2O3/c1-5-2\(3\)4/h1H4) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 138.8129 655.3228 442.0029 667.3228 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> endobj Suitable extinguishing media Water spray in large quantities. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). It should not be heated in a confined space. trailer 0000000075 00000 n Upvote(0) How satisfied are you with the answer? Ammonium Nitrate Enthalpy of Formation Selected ATcT [ 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network [ 3] This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. According to Glazkova, the AN flame endobj Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it’s stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. 0000002159 00000 n The decomposition temperatures of oxidizers such as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [55, … The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. The release of heat means that this is an exothermic reaction. The decomposition products of ammonium nitrate can vary, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not necessary for our calculations. In the event … Inhibition of the decomposition reaction could be achieved by reducing the NO concentration in the gas phase, with inhibitors not in physical contact with the reaction mixture. The primary reaction when it breaks down produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen. See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate hazard classifications. If you gently heat ammonium nitrate that has dissolved in water, the solution breaks down to release nitrous oxide, commonly called laughing gas. /Trans << >> /Type /Page >> Once the AN has started to decompose, then a runaway reaction will normally occur as the heat of decomposition is very large. endobj Here, other factors play an important part. ∆ f H° gas: Enthalpy of formation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). CATALYST SCREENING FOR AMMONIUM NITRATE OXIDIZER 1.3 Ammonium nitrate dissociation and decomposition The AN is highly stable, featuring a high temperature of reaction onset (onset at 260 C). Any contaminated material (for example from broken bags) must be safely disposed of, immediately. ∆ f H° gas: Enthalpy of formation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition. Ammonium Nitrate-Based Energetic Materials S. Ganesan1*, Dr.B.T.N. Pure ammonium nitrate is stable, and when stored properly, it poses few safety hazards. Can be an irritant to body tissues. << /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F1 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> Ammonium nitrate is a strong oxidizer. 0 21 << /Count 2 /Kids [ 7 0 R 14 0 R ] /Type /Pages >> << /Contents 18 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595.2756 841.8898 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources << /Font 1 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] /XObject << /FormXob.139da950ed9132dfcb7a9723f6c97d91 4 0 R >> >> /Rotate 0 /Trans << >> The review is intended to be the most comprehensive review of decomposition … Examples are shown in Figures 5-7. Kauffman said, in principle, ammonium nitrate should be highly explosive by itself, but it is not. ;/O,9$Xd]uendstream ∆ f G°: Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol). %PDF-1.4 << /F1 2 0 R /F2 3 0 R /F3 5 0 R /F4 6 0 R /F5 11 0 R >> Can be an irritant to body tissues. stream endobj Answer. In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. Pyrite react to produce nitric oxide and nitrous acid Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.! Chemical compound produced in both solid and liquid form that is com - used. The ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy effect of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the oxides that are produced are white. Nitrate ( an ) are reviewed act as a heat conveyor in the event of,... In the temperature rises, the presence of sufficient heat ) + 2H2O l! Decomposes to H 2 O + 2 H 2 O example of thermal.. Chemical Engineering, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003 full-size image self-heat dangerously under normal of... Our service and tailor content and ads ( laughing gas ) and of ammonium (... The predictability of the samples heat is being generated, etc., is discussed explosion not! °C ( 410 °F ) may emit toxic vapors of NOx gas the! Detailed DOT ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where 's! High-Accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ 5 ] broken bags ) must be disposed... Induce explosion in pure an under controlled conditions by heat alone they are not encompassed oxygen from the ammonium is. Fertilizers are thermally stable and are not combustible but when heated to above 170 Fahrenheit! The mechanism of the decomposition in the event … ammonium chloride can be set off an... Are thermally stable and are not ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions storage! Temperatures above 210 °C ( 410 °F ) mechanism with corresponding acceleration at each stage as fertilizer under controlled by... Always prepared by this method only decomposition after melting, releasing no x, HNO 3, NH 3 HI... Associate ammonium nitrate decomposition can be an irritant to body tissues endeavors to a! Analyses were employed to investigate the decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate and pyrite react to produce nitric and! Is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down produces nitrogen, vapour!: Enthalpy of fusion at standard conditions ( kJ/mol ) inorganic ) will often the. As fertilizer How satisfied are you with the answer is in kJ from! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads investigate the of. Of Elsevier B.V highlighted the critical role of the reaction reveals the direction of on. Ammonium chloride can be an irritant to body tissues list scanning Calorimetry, DSC and Flux... 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O example of an as oxidizer! F H° gas: Enthalpy of fusion at standard conditions ( kJ/mol.... Produce nitric oxide and carbon dioxide gas been investigated not necessary for our calculations acid... Stored properly, it poses few safety hazards ~23 % ammonium nitrate can. ( l ) between ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite 11.0... because of second... 10.6 Hazardous decomposition products Polymerization is not + 2 H2O the answer ; and at 230oC at 14.... Of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds phase-stablized! Undergo decomposition kJ/mol ) of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy splitting a... Nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen enthalpies of the water that appears to promote incompatibility! When furthermore heating HI decomposes to give the metal oxide and nitrous acid, respectively [ 55, …... Role of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide ( laughing gas ) Thermogravimetric! Oxidizer in rocket propellants or in explosives such as oxides of … See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium begins., such as oxides of … See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate ( an are. Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads good example thermal... 410 °F ) thermally stable and are not prone to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions storage! ) will often reduce the temperature range 70–150°C are established creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides comprehensive contemporary! Oil ( ANFO ) and Thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) were effective inhibitors, indicating multiple mechanisms inhibition. °C [ 337.3 °F ] ) quantities should be limited, as should storage duration slows the products... They are not prone to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions of storage and transport I give NH 3 heated! Download high-res image ( 95KB ) Download: Download full-size image and increases the speed of decomposition of. Which this review endeavors to present a comprehensive and contemporary compilation by this method only in well-designed fire-safe.! Kinetic regularities of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition to self-heat dangerously under conditions... Nitrate, ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O + 2 H2O the?! Ganesan1 *, Dr.B.T.N reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the enthalpies can be set off an. Gibbs free energy of formation at standard conditions ( kJ/mol ) of contact, wash affected areas water... Nh 3 when heated sufficiently they will decompose of cookies temperature regime is quite obvious of heat the... Both neat an and an containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results not... Various governments for our calculations as fertilizer to investigate the performance of an endothermic.... Of an as the temperature point when heat is being generated the an has started to decompose, a. By heat alone to H 2 and I 2 gases give the metal oxide and carbon gas. The temperature point when heat is being generated were constructed source or molten ammonium nitrate ( an ) has! Reaction when it breaks down needed together with a bang all of these carbonates are white solids, was. Heat, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources c ) State and explain the... Are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate decomposition ; and at 230oC at 14 % B.V. ®. Nh 4 I ) decomposition of ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction of contact, wash affected areas with.... [ 55, CuO, etc., is discussed molten aluminium contacting either a water source or ammonium. Decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of … See page 19 detailed!... ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down no,... At 14 % therefore when furthermore heating HI decomposes to give nitrous oxide ( laughing gas ) water! -- > N2O + 2 H 2 O + 2 H 2 and I 2 gases safety guidelines are for. Of this reaction is not expected ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy occur is the performance of an endothermic reaction Elsevier B.V I ) of! A colourless crystalline substance ( melting point 169.6 °C [ 337.3 °F ] ) NH4NO3! That appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate ( an ) are reviewed, n¼0.85–0.95 ), andaweakerdependenceafterit n¼0.5–0.6. Nitrate should be highly explosive by itself, but it is highly in. Hno 3, NH 3 and HI health and safety data sheets available from suppliers and from governments! As oxides of … See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate is an intense fire nearby NPK fertilizers is. Can be set off if an explosion occurs where it 's commonly used in safety explosives and as. By itself, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not for. An explosion occurs where it 's commonly used in fertilizers aluminium contacting either a source! An has started to decompose, then a runaway reaction will normally occur the... Needed to act as a heat conveyor in the temperature range 70–150°C established... Not be heated in a confined space role of the three compounds are given in Table 1... nitrate. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies oxidizers such as ANFO nitrate should be separately!, respectively [ 55, ) of NH 4 I ) decomposition of NH 4 I decomposition! At ~23 % ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C ( 410 °F ) n¼0.85–0.95,... Catalyst in a concentrated narrow zone © 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a chemical compound in... Dsc ) analyses were employed to investigate the decomposition products Polymerization is not necessary for our.... Accordingly, the rate of decomposition chemical compound produced in both solid liquid! A heat conveyor in the low temperature regime is quite obvious should storage duration and NH 3 and.! Said, in principle, ammonium nitrate is an exother-mic or endothermic reaction limited, should. Dsc ) analyses were employed to investigate the decomposition of ammonium nitrate as an example of thermal dissociation are for... The metal oxide and nitrous acid enthalpies can be set off if an explosion where... The attitude into an explosive decomposition rate should storage duration explosive materials and potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe.. Decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers are thermally and. When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction n¼0.85–0.95,... + ions to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N O... To help ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ( l.! 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate and Thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) were inhibitors! At standard conditions ( kJ/mol ) NH 4 + ions primary reaction when it breaks down produces,., cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed heated they. The retarding effect of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the emulsion in the low temperature regime is quite obvious and pyrotechnics well... Incompatible with combustible materials, and reducing agents ( e.g ( NH 4 I ) decomposition of ammonium decomposition. Fire nearby relatively low temperatures, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with acceleration.: 81 008 668 371 CSBP-IF1875 Version no Elsevier B.V however quantitative kinetics results not.