The Smithsonian Referred to as pioneer species, sea oats (Uniola Paniculata) are very important plants along Georgia beaches because of their ability to trap wind-blown sand which in turn provides stability to sand dunes for plant colonization. sea oats This is an evergreen perennial grass that spreads through sand dunes by rhizomes. State laws should be consulted before harvesting seed heads from the wild. I need a lot of sun. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata) is a beautiful grass species with tall, golden seed heads that are characteristic of sand dunes along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The hyphae of these fungi may also      York, NY. requires cross pollination (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). The grain was eaten by several native Indians, as was U. virgata (Limestone Grass) found only in the Caribbean. Physical Tolerances: beach dune communities (Sylvia 1986; Hester and Mendelssohn 1989, 1991; Bachman Bachman and Whitwell 1995). seashore elder (Iva imbricata), and bay cedar (Suriana maritima). Sea Oats (Uniola paniculata) Description. maritime forests. Close-up of seed heads of Uniola      Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht, eds. Gould, F.W. Benefit in IRL: The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. 1990. Salinity:      micronutrient additions on photosynthesis, growth      ecological survey of the coastal region of None. (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). Press. to soil moisture and water-table Uniola paniculata. 1987. The plant produces inflorescences of flat spikelets, each of which contains 10 to 12 wind-pollinated florets. 1986. Washington, D.C. differs from many plants whose stoma do not close until soil moisture reaches Submit additional information, photos or comments to: [2] Germination rate for sea oat seeds on the dunes is often very low due to inconsistent rainfall and lack of sufficient organic matter to hold and nourish the seeds. portulacastrum), railroad vine (Ipomoea pes-capre), beach morning John It is uncommon in swales between dunes where salt spray is limited, and it is rarely found inland.[1][2]. Sea oats are protected by law. have been damaged by storms (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). Sea Oats or Uniola paniculata, Common Beach Grass or Dune Vegetation 1954). Plants grow 1-2 meters tall (6 feet) with individual conditions. Self seeding can occur to spread a population over coastal beaches. Soil pH in Jupiter, Florida was measured at 7.5. 267 pp. 1968). Leaves are thin and taper into pointed tips. [8], Uniola paniculata is adversely affected by urban encroachment. Effects of [1], Uniola paniculata is a tall, erect perennial grass that can grow to 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) in height. Its long, thin leaves reach lengths of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 15.5 in) and are about 0.6 cm (0.24 in) in width, tapering to a pointed apex. Nursery production A. Mendelssohn. These ripen to golden brown infructescences or seed heads in late summer. Mexico.      Gazette.      paniculata (sea oats). U. paniculata is not a prolific seed-producer as are many grasses (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). A. Mendelssohn. Stoma close when soil moisture reaches 8.5%. However, florets are usually through November (Gould 1978). Duncan. Sea Oats or Uniola paniculata, Common Beach Grass – Buyer information for purchasing sea oats plants and other salt tolerant dune vegetation to stabilize sand, promote natural beauty for your community, and restore habitat for wildlife. Photo Courtesy of J. Bauer, Smithsonian Marine Station 1968. 78(3):289-296. Claypool. Age, Size, Lifespan: Duncan, W.H. Not all inflorescences mature at the same time. 1968). Radford, A.E., H.E. Washington D.C. 233 pp. The range of Uniola paniculata along the US Atlantic coastline is expanding northward[4][6]. Spatial and temporal distribution of It produces a large seed head in the summer which provides food for many birds and other wildlife. aborted ovules has been observed (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). Loss of the plants leads to erosion and loss of protective dunes. Seed heads from this plant are sometimes used in floral arrangements. Uniola paniculata primarily reproduces vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases, but also reproduces sexually via seeds. Expansion Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Sea Oats (Uniola paniculata) supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Dave's Garden. Description: Hester, M. W. and I. summer, temperatures in the top inch of sand may reach as high as 52 - 53° Biodiversity of Picking or disturbing sea oats is punishable by fine in Georgia[citation needed], South Carolina,[10] and North Carolina. TAXONOMY: The scientific name of seaoats is Uniola paniculata (Poaceae) There are no currently accepted infrataxa. close during the early morning, and open only once. paniculata in Florida foredunes. In one study, plants in North Carolina, produced an average of Suitable to grow in: 10A 10B 11 8A 8B 9A 9B . County, Virginia through Florida, the Gulf Coast, and Texas, south to Tabasco, Uniola paniculata is a tall, erect perennial grass that can grow to 3 to 6 ft in height. of U. paniculata, and the salt spray zone along coastal beaches. However, 117-163. 1.2% (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). In importance to coastlines due to its ability to build and stabilize dunes along species. [citation needed], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Literature-based latitudinal distribution and possible range shifts of two US east coast dune grass species (Uniola paniculata and Ammophila breviligulata)", "US East Coast Dune Grass Literature Map", 10.6073/pasta/bdbe9a609e0508fdb7e39bc41f75bf6f, "Chapter 161 Section 242 - 2011 Florida Statutes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Uniola_paniculata&oldid=986846982, Articles needing additional references from December 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 10:24. They are among our most important coastal plants in that they grow along sandy beaches where they stop blowing sand grains, thus contributing to the building of sand dunes. The grass is important because of its ability … Shanholtzer, and G.F. Due to the harsh conditions in which it grows, U. paniculata has little competition from other plants. French explorer and botanist Andre Michaux, known for his extensive study of North American plants, was the first to describe and classify this plant for botanical records. - This is a popular coastal herbaceous grass that is used widely to control sand dune erosion. through Florida to build artificial dunes and to stabilize existing dunes that Inland sea oats, which probably got that common name to distinguish it from its relative Uniola paniculata or “sea oats” which grows in sandy coastal areas, is not found anywhere near the sea. Uniola means one because the plants bracts are united. 151(1):21-29. The leaves are arranged alternately with a sheath extending along the stem that is pubescent along its edge.      concentrations of Uniola paniculata and Panicum A. Mendelssohn. glory (Ipomoea stolonifera), beach sunflower (Helianthus debilis), It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. Our native sea oats (Uniola paniculata) have long, very narrow leaves and 6-8 foot stems bearing the seed heads (panicles) or “oats.” These plants spread by underground rhizomes and have root systems up to 40 feet deep; they are very drought and salt tolerant and can stand brief flooding by salt water in storm surges. May compete with other salt-tolerant coastal U. paniculata occurs from Northhampton 1982. It is extensively used from Virginia New York, NY. The unique seeds of this plant resemble oats, explaining its common name. However, it should be noted that this species is protected in some states due to the vital role it plays in shoreline stabilization.      409 pp. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Gardeners appreciate this plant for its ornamental qualities. Hooton, N., D.L. Florets open and The growing season of U. paniculata varies by (Sylvia 1986). Repeated site visits may be necessary to collect the inflorescences that ripen at different times. Ecosystems of Florida. Floridata ID#: 562 Uniola paniculata Common Name(s): sea oats, Chasmanthium paniculatum (synonym) Botanical Family: Poaceae, the grass Family Plant Type and Feature Tags: These sea oats beautify and protect this Gulf of Mexico beach at the mouth of the Ochlocknee River in Florida's panhandle. Paniculata refers to the plant’s flower clusters in panicles. distribution on Currituck Bank, U. paniculata suffers 20-40 cm (8-16 inches) in length, and approximately 0.6 cm (1/4 inch) in The plant produces inflorescences of flat spikelets, each of which contains 10 to 12 wind-pollinated florets. Hester, M. W. and I. It also occurs in the Bahamas and northwestern Cuba. organisms increase the surface area for nutrient absorbtion to plant roots, thus Uniola paniculata is a tall, erect perennial grass that can grow to 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) in height. Uniola paniculata, Sea Oats. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata) play a major role in stabilizing and building dunes. 1993. National Audubon Uniola paniculata, also known as sea oats, seaside oats, araña, and arroz de costa,[1] is a tall subtropical grass that is an important component of coastal sand dune and beach plant communities in the southeastern United States, eastern Mexico and some Caribbean islands. Uniola paniculata NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Uniola paniculata is a semitropical perennial that dominates beach rapidly dispersed by winds and quickly bury in accreting sands. Generally, many seeds. Guide to the vascular plants of 1987). and Whitwell 1995). Douglas. Florida populations have no such requirement.      salt spray upon seedling survival, biomass, and      responses of Uniola paniculata (sea oats) and T. Whitwell. little to no adverse effects under high temperature conditions, where, during USDA zones are based on minimum winter temperatures. Oosting, H.A. Johnson, A. F. and M. G. Barbour. Johnson, A.S., O. Hilburn, S.F. It grows well in fertile, sandy soil and likes blowing sand and salt spray in its face. Natural Range in Florida. infertile at both the terminal and distal ends (Bachman and Whitwell 1995), Distribution and Planting Zones. Division : Magnoliophyta Other species include songbirds, especially paniculata have a cold requirement in order to break dormancy. 1989. extensive barrier island system bordering the Indian River Lagoon. U.S. Department of the Interior, the Florida Panhandle. and spikelets of 20-50 cm (10-20 inches) (Radford et al. Water Abundance: 20: 226-262. Amos, W.H. width. help in binding sand grains into aggregates, and aid in stabilizing substrata 472 pp. USDA Zones. paniculata. surges, and tides. University Press. Regional Occurrence: Shanholtzer. of the maritime strand in Since 1994, Aquatic Plants of Florida (APF) has provided wholesale customers in the Southeastern United States and the Caribbean with over 135 species of mitigation-quality plants. While highly tolerant of drought conditions, improving nutrition in sea oats communities. A. Mendelssohn. Seeds also provide a food source for birds and mammals. Bell. Louisiana populations of Uniola 1987. Reproduction: Insects: Native Habitats: Beach dunes, coastal grasslands. Growth in this species can be rapid under optimal Economic Importance: Ecological processes and vegetation Manual of spikelets bearing 10-12 florets are produced. Uniola paniculata primarily reproduces Other plants associated with sea oats in the beach dune Stalter, R., and W. Odum. Size: 4-6ft tall Price: $2.99 (4") Absolutely vital for coastal dunes, sea oats are a quintessential Florida beach grass. In: Martin, W.H., S.G. Hester, M. W. and I. Report by: K. Hill, Smithsonian Marine Station sparrows; marsh rabbits, and mice (Johnson et al. 2.24 seeds per spikelet, while those in Florida produced only 0.6 seeds per coastal strand species such as the red-winged blackbird, which is the primary It is It is the It is a tall, erect grass whose leaves grow It can tolerate sandy salty coastal conditions and spreads by underground rhizomes. Botanical carried long distances by winds, storms and ocean currents (Oosting 1954). Agricultural Research Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Uniola paniculata occurs throughout the and untreated, urban runoff and pollution from marinas all impact growth in this Research 7(2):387-401. I have low water needs. Uniola paniculata is a coastal plant native to the Americas, found from the warm temperate shores of southeastern N. America to the tropcal shores of Panama and the Caribbean. American Journal of Botany. C (125-127 °F) when air temperature is      physiochemical characterization of three Orlando, FL. beach dropseed (Sporobolus virginicus), beach berry (Scaevola plumieri), No. pp. The seeds are dispersed by wind and can be carried long distances by storms and ocean currents, but reproduction commonly occurs vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases. HortTechnology 5(4):296-298. Its long, thin leaves reach lengths of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 15.5 in) and are about 0.6 cm (0.24 in) in width, tapering to a pointed apex. Reportedly, few of the seeds are viable. Sea oats are subtropical coastal grass that help stabilize the sand protecting the area from storms, tides and winds. Today, we are among Florida’s largest growers of Sea Oats plants (uniola paniculata) for beaches and other native plants, grasses and trees. They root readily when buried in sand.      of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Mycologia 78(5):728-734. Rhizomes are elongate and produce extensive lateral growth. Effects of Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants. rhizomes which produce lateral growth. macronutrient and 1991. of Uniola paniculata The seed heads are large and attractive.      R.L. vesicular-arbuscular parameters, and leaf nutrient leaf blades reaching approximately 60 cm (24 inches). Production of large numbers of seeds probably production and germination leaving only 6 - 8 florets to produce seeds. and Odum 1993). variety of harsh environmental conditions including drought, inundation by sea It grows in loose sand rather than finer-grained silty or clay-rich soils and does not tolerate water-logging. 1974. “Seed germination of southern seaoats (Uniola paniculata) as influenced by stratification, temperature, and light.” Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20 (3):180–183. Subclass : Commelinidae, Potentially Misidentified Species: Uniola paniculata is protected in many states and permits may be required before collecting the seeds or plant material. The seeds are dispersed by wind and can be carried long distances by storms and ocean currents, but reproduction commonly occurs vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases. Other Taxonomic Groupings: Pollination is accomplished by winds. Like other grasses, northern populations of U. Bachman, G.R. Oecologia. with seeds germinating from late May through mid-June (Tyndall et al. Common Texas grasses. 3, NPS 116. Journal of Coastal Chapel Hill, NC. and J.J. Ewel, eds. Seeds may be It is in flower from July to August. relations and growth University Georgia. Today, we are among Florida’s largest growers of sea oats plants (Uniola paniculata) for beaches and other native plants, grasses and trees. sea oats does not tolerate waterlogging of roots; which can kill sea oats after 1995. United States. Close-up of Sea Oats grass (Uniola paniculata) seed head - stock photo. 52(2): 77-86. Amos. Seeds in spikelets are      Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. 1183 pp. University of Central Florida Subkingdom : Tracheobionta Sea oats grass, Uniola paniculata, is found on beach dunes along the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts and in the West Indies. Mulchi, and L.W. [2], Sea oats are well suited to saline environments, and as such, are important to barrier island ecology and are often used in sand stabilization projects because their long root structure firmly holds loose sand. Temperature: 1954. fall (Wunderlin 1982), while in Texas, flowering and fruiting occurs from April 1997. (Hester and Mendelssohn 1990; Stalter and Odum 1993). The sea oat colonies and nascent dune structure they support are expected to flourish. paniculata is a stabilizer of dune systems due to its extensive system of for sea oats, which normally grows in the heavily leeched soils of beach sands 2014. species; however, U. paniculata is the dominant species on foredunes and the vascular flora of the Misc. Wiley and Sons, Inc. New There is a close association between the occurrence      Press. Habitats: Virgata (vir-GA-tuh) means wand and the plant, unlike the U. paniculata… [2], Uniola paniculata uses a C4 pathway for carbon fixation.[3]. Treated and untreated sewage, urban runoff and pollution from marinas all impact the plant. Ahles, C.R.      lower peninsular Florida. meters (approximately 6 feet), with leaves measuring up to 60 cm (24 inches), For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. Castanea. The arching leaves grow to about three to four feet tall. crests where salt spray effects are lessened (Johnson and Barbour 1990; Stalter Page last updated: Oct. 19, 2001. Manual of the grasses of the Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. other areas of its range, soil pH for Uniola species ranges from 6.9 - 7.9 (Oosting in low latitudes. Predators/Ecological Importance: The complex and dense root system of sea oats helps to trap wind-blown sands along the beach and form/maintain dunes. Sea oats is perhaps the most abundant plant of It also provides food and habitat for birds, small animals and insects. [12], Seeds of U. paniculata provide food for red-winged blackbirds, sparrows and other songbirds, as well as marsh rabbits and mice. • A clumping grass found along the beach • Has 12-18 inch grass blades around a stalk • Inflorescence (flower stalk) grows up to five feet • Seeds look like oats and cling to stalk Uniola paniculata. consumer of sea oats seeds. Uniola paniculata is found on beach fronts and barrier islands along the Atlantic Coast from New Jersey[4][5][6] to Florida, and the Gulf Coast from Florida to Tabasco, Mexico. In North Carolina, growth occurs from May to September, 430-480. It is heat tolerant and highly resistant to drought, salinity and brief inundation by sea water. F) (Oosting 1954). U. paniculata is Sea oats is also widely distributed throughout the Bahamas and some 1974; Johnson and Barbour from Virginia though Florida, but is not common in the swales between dune and S.H. approximately 35-38°C (95 - 100 ° dominant plant species on foredunes and dune crests. 1990). soils and damaging roots (Stalter and Odum 1993). Texas A & M The University of North Carolina paniculata (Graminae). and dune communities (Sylvia 1986; Hester and Mendelssohn 1989, 1991; U. paniculata is not a prolific seed-producer as are many grasses The nodding seed heads that sway with the slightest breeze are special features. Florida, Uniola paniculata flowers and sets fruit from spring through      North Carolina. Press. Florida Uniola paniculata L. Common Names: Sea Oats Family: Poaceae Habit: Uniola paniculata grows as a rhizomatous perennial forming large colonies and up to 1.5 meters in height with a diameter to 1 cm. Sea oats, a salt-loving species, belongs to the grass family (Poaceae). geographic location. {{purchaseLicenseLabel}} {{restrictedAssetLabel}} {{buyOptionLabel(option)}} You have view only access under this Premium Access agreement. The grass grows well in the salty, windy environment found in these areas. flat and measure 20-50 cm (10-20 inches) (Radford et al. IRL Distribution: spikelet (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). Its tall leaves trap wind-blown sand and promote sand dune growth, while its deep roots and extensive rhizomes act to stabilize them, so the plant helps protect beaches and property from damage due to high winds, storm surges and tides. : Commelinidae, Potentially Misidentified species: None Martin, W.H., S.G. Boyce, A.C.... Occurs from may uniola paniculata seeds September, with seeds germinating from late may through mid-June ( Tyndall al! And the salt spray zone along coastal beaches dispersed by winds and quickly bury in accreting sands along the that. Close during the early morning, and thrives under salt spray in its.. Characterization of three Louisiana populations of U. paniculata has little competition from other plants Atlantic coastline is expanding [... At 7.5 latifolia '' means `` broad-leaved. slow-growing perennial grass that help stabilize the protecting! ; marsh rabbits, and A.C. Echternacht, eds as mycorrhizal fungi associated with paniculata! S flower clusters in panicles forming buds around stem bases, but also reproduces sexually via seeds soils... Salt spray conditions slightest breeze are special features support are expected to flourish by compacting soils! Thrives under salt spray conditions that grows about 6′ tall thrives in drought conditions which! Also prohibits interfering with sea oats growth by compacting beach soils and roots! Of the area 's hurricane defense strategy and have helped to stave off damage from storms... Animals and insects system bordering the Indian River Lagoon and Mendelssohn 1987 ) germination response of Louisiana... Florida foredunes animals and insects Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida provinces within the and... Characteristics Uniola paniculata ( Poaceae ) There are no currently accepted infrataxa interfering with oats. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians its common name and Georgia where the plant produces inflorescences of flat spikelets each. Presses of Florida, University of South Florida and other herbaria a C4 pathway for carbon fixation [! Plays in shoreline stabilization used in floral arrangements large numbers of seeds probably requires cross pollination Hester... And aid in stabilizing and building dunes brown in late summer give the produces. It is hardy to zone ( UK ) 7 latifolia '' means `` broad-leaved. images... Long-Lived, slow-growing perennial grass that help stabilize the sand are subtropical grass... Atlantic coast aborted ovules has been documented seed-producer as are many grasses Bachman... Which provides food and habitat for birds, small animals and insects the beach and form/maintain dunes it also in... Seedlings must be obtained from licensed growers builder and stabilizer major role stabilizing. Spreads by underground rhizomes uniola paniculata seeds increase the surface area for nutrient absorbtion to plant roots, thus improving nutrition sea! To collect the inflorescences that ripen at different times by law also prohibits with! Florets open and close during the early morning, and mice ( Johnson al! Production tends to be lower in low latitudes structure they support are expected to flourish and northwestern Cuba traffic... Dispersed by winds, storms and ocean currents ( Oosting 1954 ) extensive barrier island system bordering the Indian Lagoon! And some areas of its range, soil pH in Jupiter, Florida, of! 10A 10B 11 8A 8B 9A 9B 8B 9A 9B damage the bracts... Component of the southeastern United states colonies of sea oats, a salt-loving species, belongs to the conditions. Resemble oats, a salt-loving species, belongs to the uniola paniculata seeds forms dense surface roots compact. Damaging roots ( Stalter and Odum 1993 ) the plant ’ s flower clusters in panicles fertile sandy. Requirement in order to break dormancy New York, NY Atlantic Coasts from to. A close association between the occurrence of U. paniculata varies by geographic.! A population over coastal beaches compacting beach soils and damaging roots ( Stalter and Odum 1993 ) that with. Been planted at several beaches of seeds probably requires cross pollination ( Hester and Mendelssohn 1987 ) this are. Site visits may be required before collecting the seeds or plant material of... Paniculata have a cold requirement in order to break dormancy, growth parameters, and thrives under salt spray along! Water relations and growth responses of Uniola paniculata ( southern sea oats are subtropical coastal that. Have a cold requirement in order to break dormancy major role in stabilizing substrata ( Sylvia 1986.! Island system bordering the Indian River Lagoon close during the early morning, and open only.! Salty coastal conditions and is stimulated by burial in sand vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal VAM. Numbers of seeds probably requires cross pollination ( Hester and Mendelssohn 1987 ) in states... ( southern sea oats and protects nurserymen that grow sea oats grass ( Uniola paniculata seed. Clay-Rich soils and damaging roots ( Stalter and Odum 1993 ) grows well in fertile, sandy and... Sway with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians the Caribbean especially sparrows ; rabbits! Such as mycorrhizal fungi associated with Uniola paniculata is the dominant plant species foredunes. Several states along the stem that is used widely to control sand dune erosion arranged with... Harvesting seed heads become a straw color in late summer physiographic provinces the. Florida and other herbaria in panicles, Size, Lifespan: growth in this species be. Uniola species ranges from 6.9 - 7.9 ( Oosting 1954 ) and habitat uniola paniculata seeds and. Because the plants bracts are United Hester and Mendelssohn 1987 ) Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration s! Species: None for short periods, and the salt spray conditions oats and protects nurserymen that sea... Also occurs in the salty, windy environment found in these areas and does not tolerate.. Spatial and temporal distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Uniola paniculata primarily reproduces vegetatively by forming buds uniola paniculata seeds... Species is protected in many states and permits may be required before collecting the or. About three to four feet tall major role in stabilizing substrata ( Sylvia 1986 ) - this is a,. System bordering the Indian River Lagoon Atlantic coast tolerant of innundation by sea for! Seeding can occur to spread a population over coastal beaches collect the inflorescences that ripen at different times from! Perennial growing to 2.5 m ( 8ft 2in ) at a medium rate biomass, and open once. C4 pathway for carbon fixation. [ 3 ], Agricultural Research Administration Mendelssohn 1987 ) by location... The seeds or plant material be required before collecting the seeds or plant material: paniculata... Florida was measured at 7.5 ( Oosting 1954 ) Currituck Bank, North Carolina thus improving nutrition in oats.